Social Factors in Depression

AHS 2018

AHS 2018: Social Factors in Depression


Illustrations in this presentation by Tiny Fox Art and Ideal Illustrations.

Expanded Abstract

Read the expanded abstract for this presentation!

Presentation Resources

MOST - Moderated online social therapy for youth mental health
This is project is promising for its potential to provide access to mental health care to a greater number of people. They currently have several versions of this programming that have been tested with different patient populations but none are available for consumer use yet.

Media Use Plan for Children
Create a media plan for your child. This calculator is available in both English and Spanish.

Making an effort to provide a peer community for patients. This site is more specifically geared towards patients with chronic pain and the idea could be applied to other patient populations as well. Check out their website or watch a short video here.

NextGen – The home within a home
Thinking about multigenerational living but want to maintain some privacy? Check out these arrangements, where you can find two homes within one.

Complete References

Adriaens, P. R., & Block, A. de. (2011). Maladapting minds : philosophy, psychiatry, and evolutionary theory. Oxford University Press.

Arango, A., Cole-Lewis, Y., Lindsay, R., Yeguez, C. E., Clark, M., & King, C. (2018). The Protective Role of Connectedness on Depression and Suicidal Ideation Among Bully Victimized Youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1–12.

Barry, C. T., Sidoti, C. L., Briggs, S. M., Reiter, S. R., & Lindsey, R. A. (2017). Adolescent social media use and mental health from adolescent and parent perspectives. Journal of Adolescence, 61, 1–11.

Bélanger, R. E., Akre, C., Berchtold, A., & Michaud, P.-A. (2011). A U-shaped association between intensity of Internet use and adolescent health. Pediatrics, 127(2), e330-5.

Bliss, C. A., Kloumann, I. M., Decker Harris, K., Danforth, C. M., & Sheridan Dodds, P. (2012). Twitter reciprocal reply networks exhibit assortativity with respect to happiness. Journal of Computational Science, 3, 388–397.

Brailovskaia, J., & Margraf, J. (2017). Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) among German students—A longitudinal approach. PLOS ONE, 12(12), e0189719.

Brüne, M. (2016). Textbook of evolutionary psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine : the origins of psychopathology (Second). Oxford.

Cacioppo, J. T., Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2009). Alone in the crowd: the structure and spread of loneliness in a large social network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(6), 977–91.

Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2013). Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior. Statistics in Medicine, 32(4), 556–577.

Cohn, D., & Passel, J. S. (2018). Record 64 million Americans live in multigenerational households | Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 7, 2018, from

Cole, D. A., Nick, E. A., Zelkowitz, R. L., Roeder, K. M., & Spinelli, T. (2017). Online social support for young people: Does it recapitulate in-person social support; can it help? Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 456–464.

Courtin, E., & Avendano, M. (2016). Under one roof: The effect of co-residing with adult children on depression in later life. Social Science & Medicine, 168, 140–149.

D’Alfonso, S., Santesteban-Echarri, O., Rice, S., Wadley, G., Lederman, R., Miles, C., … Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2017). Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Online Social Therapy for Youth Mental Health. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 796.

Davidson, S. K., Dowrick, C. F., & Gunn, J. M. (2016). Impact of functional and structural social relationships on two year depression outcomes: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 193, 274–281.

de Mello, M. F., de Jesus Mari, J., Bacaltchuk, J., Verdeli, H., & Neugebauer, R. (2005). A systematic review of research findings on the efficacy of interpersonal therapy for depressive disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 255(2), 75–82.

Dibben, C., Playford, C., & Mitchell, R. (2017). Be(ing) prepared: Guide and Scout participation, childhood social position and mental health at age 50—a prospective birth cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71(3), 275–281.

Dunlop, S. M., More, E., & Romer, D. (2011). Where do youth learn about suicides on the Internet, and what influence does this have on suicidal ideation? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1073–1080.

Dyble, M., Salali, G. D., Chaudhary, N., Page, A., Smith, D., Thompson, J., … Migliano, A. B. (2015). Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands. Science, 348(6236), 796–798.

Gerino, E., Rollè, L., Sechi, C., & Brustia, P. (2017). Loneliness, Resilience, Mental Health, and Quality of Life in Old Age: A Structural Equation Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2003.

Haeffel, G. J., & Hames, J. L. (2014). Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Can Be Contagious. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(1), 75–85.

Hamilton, M. J., Milne, B. T., Walker, R. S., Burger, O., & Brown, J. H. (2007). The complex structure of hunter-gatherer social networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274(1622), 2195–2203.

Hansman, H. (2015). College Students are Living Rent-Free in a Cleveland Retirement Home | Innovation | Smithsonian. Retrieved July 7, 2018, from

He, J., Koot, H. M., Buil, J. M., & van Lier, P. A. C. (2017). Impact of Low Social Preference on the Development of Depressive and Aggressive Symptoms: Buffering by Children’s Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

Healy, K. L., & Sanders, M. R. (2018). Mechanisms Through Which Supportive Relationships with Parents and Peers Mitigate Victimization, Depression and Internalizing Problems in Children Bullied by Peers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development.

Hidaka, B. H. (2012). Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140(3), 205–14.

Hill, K. R., Walker, R. S., Bozicevic, M., Eder, J., Headland, T., Hewlett, B., … Wood, B. (2011). Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure. Science, 331(6022), 1286–1289.

Hoge, E., Bickham, D., & Cantor, J. (2017). Digital Media, Anxiety, and Depression in Children. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), S76–S80.

Hume, C., Timperio, A., Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Crawford, D., & Ball, K. (2011). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 8(2), 152–6. Retrieved from

Kelley-Moore, J. A., Cagney, K. A., Skarupski, K. A., Everson-Rose, S. A., & Mendes de Leon, C. F. (2016). Do Local Social Hierarchies Matter for Mental Health? A Study of Neighborhood Social Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 71(2), 369–377.

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, Physical, and Academic Correlates of Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), S13–S20.

Kushlev, K., & Dunn, E. W. (2018). Smartphones distract parents from cultivating feelings of connection when spending time with their children. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 026540751876938.

Landstedt, E., Brydsten, A., Hammarström, A., Virtanen, P., & Almquist, Y. B. (2016). The role of social position and depressive symptoms in adolescence for life-course trajectories of education and work: a cohort study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1169.

LeBourgeois, M. K., Hale, L., Chang, A.-M., Akacem, L. D., Montgomery-Downs, H. E., & Buxton, O. M. (2017). Digital Media and Sleep in Childhood and Adolescence. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), S92–S96.

Lépine, J.-P., & Briley, M. (2011). The increasing burden of depression. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7(Suppl 1), 3–7.

Levula, A., Harré, M., & Wilson, A. (2017). The Association Between Social Network Factors with Depression and Anxiety at Different Life Stages. Community Mental Health Journal.

Li, H., Ji, Y., & Chen, T. (2014). The Roles of Different Sources of Social Support on Emotional Well-Being among Chinese Elderly. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e90051.

Lissak, G. (2018). Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study. Environmental Research, 164, 149–157.

Liu, M., Wu, L., & Yao, S. (2016). Dose-response association of screen time-based sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(20), 1252–1258.

Maji, S. (2018). Society and ‘good woman’: A critical review of gender difference in depression. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 002076401876502.

Maras, D., Flament, M. F., Murray, M., Buchholz, A., Henderson, K. A., Obeid, N., & Goldfield, G. S. (2015). Screen time is associated with depression and anxiety in Canadian youth. Preventive Medicine, 73, 133–138.

McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Brashears, M. E. (2006). Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks over Two Decades. American Sociological Review, 71(3), 353–375.

Morin-Major, J. K., Marin, M.-F., Durand, N., Wan, N., Juster, R.-P., & Lupien, S. J. (2016). Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 238–246.

Multigenerational Living Is Back And That’s A Good Thing. (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2018, from

Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., McHugo, G. J., Unützer, J., Marsch, L. A., & Bartels, S. J. (2017). Exploring opportunities to support mental health care using social media: A survey of social media users with mental illness. Early Intervention in Psychiatry.

National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). NIMH: Suicide. Retrieved July 15, 2018, from

Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., … Zhou, M. (n.d.). Media Use, Face-to-Face Communication, Media Multitasking, and Social Well-Being Among 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls.

Pitz Jacobsen, D., Nielsen, M. B., Einarsen, S., & ­Gjerstad, J. ­. (2018). Negative social acts and pain: evidence of a workplace bullying and 5-HTT genotype interaction. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Primack, B. A., Swanier, B., Georgiopoulos, A. M., Land, S. R., & Fine, M. J. (2009). Association between media use in adolescence and depression in young adulthood: a longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(2), 181–8.

Rainie, L., Horrigan, J. B., Wellman, B., & Boase, J. (2006). The Strength of Internet Ties | Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Raison, C. L., Capuron, L., & Miller, A. H. (2006). Cytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression. Trends in Immunology, 27(1), 24–31.

Raison, C. L., Lowry, C. A., & Rook, G. A. W. (2010). Inflammation, sanitation, and consternation: loss of contact with coevolved, tolerogenic microorganisms and the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(12), 1211–24.

Raschke, H. (2016). An easy way for college students to save money. Retrieved July 7, 2018, from

Reid Chassiakos, Y. L., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M. A., Cross, C., & COUNCIL ON COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA, C. O. C. A. (2016). Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. Pediatrics, 138(5), e20162593.

Rice, S., Gleeson, J., Davey, C., Hetrick, S., Parker, A., Lederman, R., … Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2016). Moderated online social therapy for depression relapse prevention in young people: pilot study of a ‘next generation’ online intervention. Early Intervention in Psychiatry.

Rico-Uribe, L. A., Caballero, F. F., Martín-María, N., Cabello, M., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., & Miret, M. (2018). Association of loneliness with all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 13(1), e0190033.

Rimes, K. A., Shivakumar, S., Ussher, G., Baker, D., Rahman, Q., & West, E. (2018). Psychosocial Factors Associated With Suicide Attempts, Ideation, and Future Risk in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth. Crisis, 1–10.

Rook, K. S. (2015). Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(1), 45–51.

Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Rab, S., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1243–1254.

Santini, Z. I., Koyanagi, A., Tyrovolas, S., Mason, C., & Haro, J. M. (2015). The association between social relationships and depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 53–65.

Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., & Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review. JMIR Mental Health, 3(4), e50.

Shensa, A., Sidani, J. E., Dew, M. A., Escobar-Viera, C. G., & Primack, B. A. (2018). Social Media Use and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: A Cluster Analysis. American Journal of Health Behavior, 42(2), 116–128.

Shensa, A., Sidani, J. E., Escobar-Viera, C. G., Chu, K.-H., Bowman, N. D., Knight, J. M., & Primack, B. A. (2018). Real-life closeness of social media contacts and depressive symptoms among university students. Journal of American College Health, 1–8.

Sin, E. L. L., Liu, H.-L., Lee, S.-H., Huang, C.-M., Wai, Y.-Y., Chen, Y.-L., … Lee, T. M. C. (2018). The relationships between brain structural changes and perceived loneliness in older adults suffering from late-life depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(4), 606–612.

Smith, K. P., & Christakis, N. A. (2008). Social Networks and Health. Annual Review of Sociology, 34(1), 405–429.

Sund, A. M., Larsson, B., & Wichstrøm, L. (2011). Role of physical and sedentary activities in the development of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(5), 431–441.

Takahashi, A., Flanigan, M. E., McEwen, B. S., & Russo, S. J. (2018). Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 56.

Walker, R. S., Hill, K. R., Flinn, M. V., & Ellsworth, R. M. (2011). Evolutionary History of Hunter-Gatherer Marriage Practices. PLoS ONE, 6(4), e19066.

Woods, H. C., & Scott, H. (2016). #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 51, 41–49.

World Health Organization. (2017). Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Retrieved from;jsessionid=75CD642FD13865E7C637CC0CA6422414?sequence=1

Wu, X.-S., Zhang, Z.-H., Zhao, F., Wang, W.-J., Li, Y.-F., Bi, L., … Sun, Y.-H. (2016). Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China. Journal of Adolescence, 52, 103–111.